ADLER, NATHAN MARCUS


ADLER, NATHAN MARCUS
ADLER, NATHAN MARCUS (1803–1890), British chief rabbi. Nathan Adler was born in Hanover, then under the British crown, and was educated in Germany. He became rabbi of Oldenburg in 1829 and succeeded his father, Marcus Baer Adler, at Hanover the following year. In 1844 he was elected chief rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the British Empire in succession to solomon hirschel . He was chosen by a representative gathering of national delegates, and not, as with his predecessors, by the London Great Synagogue alone. S.R. Hirsch was among the other candidates. During his 45 years of office the Anglo-Jewish community developed its modern features, which Adler did much to shape. His firm but enlightened orthodoxy was coupled with a strong and attractive personality. Adler was largely responsible for the failure of the reform movement, established in England shortly before his arrival, to make much headway there. His wide-ranging and ambitious conception of his office was made clear in his Laws and Regulations for all the Ashkenazi Synagogues in the British Empire, issued in 1847. He was mainly responsible for the establishment of Jews' College in 1855 and was a moving spirit in the organization of the Jewish Board of Guardians in 1859. In 1866 he took the first steps toward the creation of the united synagogue . His pastoral tours and visits to provincial communities made his influence felt throughout the country, and he was also able to secure recognition of his authority in the British colonies. Adler regarded Anglo-Orthodoxy as lax compared with the Continent and therefore in need of central direction. Outside the community he was regarded as the official representative and public spokesman for Judaism. Ill health curtailed his activity after 1879, when his son hermann adler was appointed delegate chief rabbi. His principal literary work is Netinah la-Ger, a Hebrew commentary on the Targum onkelos (Vilna, 1875; published in numerous editions). His Ahavat Yonatan, a commentary on the Targum Jonathan, remains in manuscript (JTSA, Ms. Adler, 1173). Adler enjoyed an international reputation for his scholarship. He greatly strengthened the position of the chief rabbi. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. Roth, in: L. Jung (ed.), Jewish Leaders 1750–1940 (1953), 477–90; Friedlaender, in JQR, 2 (1890), 369–85; Schmidt, in: YLBI, 7 (1962), 289–311; JC (Jan. 24, 1890); C. Roth, History of the Great Synagogue… (1950), 266 ff.; L.P. Gartner, Jewish Immigrant in England 1870–1914 (1960), index. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: ODNB online; G. Alderman, Modern British Jewry (1992), index. (Cecil Roth)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Adler, Nathan Marcus — ▪ British rabbi and educator born Jan. 15, 1803, Hanover [Germany] died Jan. 21, 1890, Brighton, East Sussex, Eng.  chief rabbi of the British Empire, who founded Jews College and the United Synagogue.       Adler became chief rabbi of Oldenburg… …   Universalium

  • Adler, Nathan Marcus — (1803–90)    Chief rabbi of the British Empire. Born in Hanover under the Crown, and therefore a British subject, Adler was chosen chief rabbi of the British Empire. He came into office during the schism in the British community over the… …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Adler, Nathan Marcus — (1803 90)    English rabbi. Appointed chief rabbi in 1844, he modernized the British rabbinate and paved the way for the estab lishment of Jews College in 1855 and the United Synagogue in 1870. He wrote a commentary on Targum Onkelos …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • ADLER, NATHAN MARCUS —    chief Rabbi in Britain, born in Hanover (1803 1890) …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Nathan Marcus Adler — (* 15. Januar 1803 in Hannover; † 21. Januar 1890 in Brighton, Großbritannien) war ein deutscher und britischer Rabbiner. Inhaltsverzeichnis …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • ADLER — ADLER, family originally from frankfurt . There are different theories as to the origin of the family name. According to one, the early members of the family lived in a house bearing the sign of an eagle (Ger. Adler). The main branch, whose… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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  • ADLER, ELKAN NATHAN — (1861–1946), Anglo Jewish bibliophile, collector, and author. Adler, the son of chief rabbi nathan marcus adler , was a lawyer by profession and had unusual opportunities to travel under favorable conditions and to build up a remarkable library.… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism


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